#LBBill – more ways to improve the Mental Capacity Act
After my last post about how #LBBill could improve the Mental Capacity Act (MCA), Lucy Series (who tweets @thesmallplaces and has a fantastic blog on mental capacity issues) got in touch with some excellent further ideas about mental capacity law reform. Lucy has kindly given me permission to post these ideas here. Lucy’s ideas and my initial responses are below – all comments welcome.
I’ve read Mark’s recent post (Bill, Bill and Bill) and also Steve’s post (#LBBill – Making the Mental Capacity Act work for disabled people and families). I think the proposals are really exciting and really interesting and have a few comments to make.
On revising section 4 MCA (the ‘best interests checklist’) to place a greater emphasis on the person’s own wishes, there are quite a few tools you could use to argue for this. There is a growing consensus amongst academic and practising lawyers that the ‘best interests’ test does not comply with Article 12(4) of the UN CRPD which says that measures relating to the exercise of legal capacity must respect the ‘rights, will and preferences’ of the person. I’ve recently participated in a series of ’roundtable meetings’ at the Ministry of Justice which reached this conclusion, although the government’s own view is yet to be announced.
If you were looking for a ‘template’ of a version of the ‘best interests’ test that places a much greater emphasis on the person’s own wishes, I’d suggest looking at section 8 of the new Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Bill from Ireland. I’ve outlined in this blog post why I think it’s more powerful than the MCA in preventing actions that conflict with what the person wants.
I agree with Steve that duties under the MCA to consult with P’s family are not strong enough (and neither is the duty to involve the person themselves vigorously enough enforced). But I don’t think it goes far enough to just address section 4 (‘best interests’). This section only kicks in at the point a person is labelled ‘incapable’. But what about involving families before that point? For example, Connor’s lack of ‘capacity’ was used to exclude his family, Mark was booted out of Steven’s capacity assessments. You need something that gives the person the right to say “this is my family, I need them to help me make decisions” and gives the family the right to say “I am an essential support to this person, you can’t shut me out”.
There are a number of legal systems around the world which allow somebody like Steven or Connor to nominate a person whom they trust as their ‘supporter’. A supporter would have a clear legal right to help the person make decisions, so it would be extremely hard for public bodies to sideline supporters or withhold information from then. In some of these laws, supporters can also ‘represent’ a person who has serious difficulties making decisions or communicating. In some ways it’s a bit like deputyship but their ‘powers’ to represent the person are much more limited (you couldn’t, for example, sell a person’s house as a supporter), they are chosen by the person (even if the person don’t have capacity to make a Lasting Power of Attorney) and they also have to represent an outcome based on what the person wants (so long as it’s ‘reasonable’). If you want examples of those, Canada is the front runner. Australia and Ireland are about to introduce similar provisions, to comply with the CRPD. The time is ripe for the UK to lobby for something like this; another issue agreed at the roundtable meetings at the Ministry of Justice was that the MCA’s support provisions are far too weak.
Steve mentioned advocacy in his post. I agree that advocacy is absolutely vital, both for families and people with disabilities. However, I think IMCA advocacy [note from Steve – IMCAs are the MCA advocates] is much, much, much weaker than the new Care Act advocates. I am very worried that we are now going to have a two-tier system, where people who ‘lack capacity’ get IMCAs – who will have less time to spend with them and much weaker duties to challenge decisions – and people with capacity will get Care Act advocates. Personally, I’d repeal the IMCA provisions and adopt the Care Act advocates for all the circumstances where IMCAs are currently used. I’d also make it much, much, clearer that where a person is deprived of their liberty and they are objecting, the IMCA must initiate an appeal on behalf of the person. It shouldn’t be left up to families to rock the boat on their behalf (although if the person isn’t objecting, and the family are, then obviously IMCAs should be available to help them).
To summarise Lucy’s excellent ideas above and my immediate thoughts:
- Strengthening the respect given to the disabled person’s wishes and feelings – we definitely need to draw on the Irish Bill and this will inform our drafting for this vital clause in #LBBill
- The idea of ‘supporters’ seems to me to be an excellent one and something which doesn’t change a fundamental feature of the MCA (and so is suitable for our Bill). My view is we should include this concept in #LBBill – I would really welcome people’s views about this. It seems to me to be an excellent approach generally but specifically in relation to the situation we are concerned with, when there is a dispute as to whether a disabled person should live in an institutional setting or in the community.
- Advocacy – completely agree with Lucy about this. Why should the right to advocacy be less when a person lacks capacity to make a key decision than if they have that capacity? It seems to me hard to argue against Care Act Advocates replacing the IMCA role – we can include this in #LBBill unless anyone can raise an objection. I also like the idea very much of requiring advocates to challenge any deprivation of liberty where P expresses contrary wishes and feelings.
So that’s two new ideas for how #LBBill can improve the MCA – creating a right for P to appoint a ‘supporter’ and improving the right to advocacy. Anyone for any more?